Amarone wine lovers will be happy to know that now is possible to admire the very first bottle of their favourite wine. Today Amarone is a global success, and the production grew from 3 milion bottles per year in the 80s, to the 13 milion produced in 2010.
The very first bottle is enshrined in the caveau-cellar of Cantina Valpolicella Negrar, the first winery that bottled it in 1939.
The Legendary Birth of the Amarone
Like many other great innovations, the origin of the Amarone too happened by chance. The official birth dates back to 1936. Adelino Lucchesi, cellar master of Cantina Sociale Valpolicella, realized that he overfermented a barrel of Recioto, the sweet dessert wine that at that time was the top product of Valpolicella. When the winery manager Gaetano Dall’Ora tasted the wine, instead of yelling at the cellar master for his forgetfulness, prized him. Instead of a “Recioto andato in amaro” (A Recioto turned bitter) it was an “Amarone” (a great bitter).
With this name the new wine was bottled in 1939. Until 1990, on the label the name was “Recioto Amarone della Valpolicella” but with the grewing popularity of this wine they decided to leave only “Amarone“.
The Tour at Cantina Valpolicella Negrar
The tour will inclde a visit at the Drying Methods Museum where visitor will see how the drying process evolved during the years. In the museum are also displayed 40 samples of Valpolicella local grapes varietal, some of which particularly rare. Samples of different soils of Valpolicella are also shown.
The tour continues with the visit at the cellar with its barriques, the tonneaux and the big oak casks.
At the end of the tour there will be a tasting of the most representative wines of the territory.
Tours must be booked in advance, but for the whole October 2011, each Saturday Cantina Valpolicella Negrar will be open for visitors who want to deepen their knowledge of Amarone and Valpolicella wines.
In big stainless steel vets, the fermentation of Valpolicella Classico is almost complete while the grapes for Amarone and Recioto wines are drying on river reeds racks or plastic crates piled up in lofts and grainaries under the roofs of wineries.
Corvina, Rondinella, Molinara and othe grapes varietals used in the blend that constitutes all Valpolicella wines, in the four month of drying loose up to 40% of their water content. With 100 kg of fresh grapes you obtain 70 liters of Valpolicella. With 100 kg of fresh grapes, at the end of the drying period and the ageing in barrels you will obtain only 20 liters of Amarone, just 15 bottles!
Recent studies discovered how the drying process is not just simple dehydration but the stress of water loss, activates genetic portions of grapes DNA that develop particular aromatic substances. This happens especially in Corvina, the most important grape for the production of the Amarone. Of course, old wine makers knew that by experience, but DNA tests proved it scientifically.
Racks Vs Plastic Boxes
The drying is done either done on river reeds racks or in plastic boxes. Each method is allowed and has its pros and contras. River reeds are natural materials that can absorb excess of humidity. Surface contact between berries and round reeds is smaller, ensuring a better air circulation. Distance between each rack is quite wide so it is possible to better check grapes for unwanted moulds, especially during the first stage of drying, when water content is higher in grapes and temperatures are still quite high.
On the other hand, grapes laid inside plastic boxes in the vineyard do not need to be moved again on racks preventing bruises and demages of grapes bunches. Plastic boxes are easier to wash reducing the risk of leaving mould spores, unwanted foul smells, etc.
The drying process is totally natural. No temperature control is allowed by Amarone DOCG production rules. In some wineries, in particularly humid days or when natural breeze is scarce, use big fans to ensure a proper air circulation.
To celebrate 2011 harvest, many wineries associated to the Strada del Vino Valpolicella promotion consortium decided to remain open for visitors on Sundays, when most wineries in Valpolicella are generally closed.
From the beinning of October until the beginning of December wineries will be open in turn for tours and tastings of Valpolicella wines and Amarone.
Azienda Agricola Carlo Boscaini
Cantina Sociale Valpolicella Calassico
Cantina Santa Sofia
La Dama Vini
Azienda Agricola Trabucchi (Illasi)
Aldegheri di Sant’Ambrogio
For those interested in organizing a wine tasting tour on Sunday in Autumn 2011, Amarone Tours can provide bookings and private escorted tours in Valpolicella wine producing area.
Bertani is one of the oldest and most traditional winery in Valpolicella. It was founded in 1857, older that Italy as a country, in Valpantena, an important wine producing area on the Eastern side of Verona territory, nowadays included in the extended Valpolicella area. The two brothers who founded the winery introduced very innovative wine making techniques for that time, and their wines became soon famous not only in Italy, but also in other European countries.
In 1958 they bought an historical estate in Valpolicella classica: Villa Novare, where our visits are conducted.
Novare extends over more than 500 acres of which 160 of vineyards. The rest is left as wood, parks, olive groves. At the center of the property is Villa Novare, a 18th century villa with painted ceilings, statues, side wings, a private chapel, etc.
Today Bertani follows a very traditional method in the wine making of its Amarone: grapes are dried on racks (arele) made of river reeds, and Amarone ages 6 years, one the longest ageing wine in Valpolicella, in big Slavonian oak barrels, 1 year ageing in bottle before the release on the market.
The winery tour at Bertani is very thorough: it includes a visit of vineyards, and park, a visit of the villa and of the historical cellar. The visit also includes a visit to drying lofts that in this period are full of grapes drying. The perfume of drying corvina is amazing.
The tour of the estate is followed by a tasting of a selection of Bertani’s wine. In this period the Amarone on tasting is the 2003 vintage. The year was characterized by an incredibly hot and dry Summer that reduced drammatically the production. Only grapes coming from vineyards high on the hills, where temperature were milder, were able to mature properly with a very high sugar content. In some wineries they obtained wines of more than 16% of alchol.
Bertani Amarone Classico 2003 is very powerful and rich wine, with hints of cooked cherries, dried plums and an almost balsamic finish. It would need probably other 4/5 years to be at his best gaining more roundness. Bertani’s wines are among the longer ageing wines not only in Valpolicella. In their wine shop they still have on sales vintages from the ’60s.
The second winery of this half day winery tour in Valpolicella is Allegrini. Compared to Bertani, Allegrini looks more like a modern winery in the sense that they pursued the philosophy of combining tradition with innovation. It is the perfect combination with the visit and tasting at Bertani, giving the chance to compare two different approaches to wine making in Valpolicella.
They where among the first to introduce the French oak barrique in Valpolicella in the ’80s, the concept of single vineyards (like French crues), the drying of grapes in temperature and humidity controlled centers, the 100% Corvina grape wines that now are becoming quite popular among wine lovers.
Informal tours and tastings are always possible at their “show room“. The visit includes a quick tour of their barrique cellar. Hundreds of 225 liters barriques are nicely lined up in the beautifully lit underground cellar where visitors are overwealmed by perfumes of sweet butter and spices. Down to the second level of the cellar guests will have the chance to see the huge Slavonian oak casks where wines finish their ageing before being bottled.
The tour is then followed by a tasting of a selection of Allegrini wines. Of course it will be interesting to compareValpolicella Classico and Amarone but also to try Allegrini original wines such as Palazzo della Torre, Allegrini interpretation of the ripasso and double fermentation technique and among their best sellers, and La Poja, Allegrini’s unique 100% Corvina grape wine.
Cross fingers, touch wood, or iron if you are in Italy.
Italians are very superstitious, wine makers and wine lovers do not want to say it loud, afraid that something could go wrong in the next couple of weeks, but 2011 is going to be one of the greatest vintages in recent years in Valpolicella.
Spring and earlySummer were rainy, letting vines developing an abundant foliage that provided nourishment to bunches.
Second half of August in the whole Verona area was extremely hot, one of the hottest in the past decade. Nevertheless, because of previous rains, soil provided moisture to vine deep roots and bunches rapidly developed high sugar content.
End of August and beginning of September are now still dry and warm, but with nice breezes and cooler nights that are helping developing a good acidity inside the berries.
The perfect combination of the right weather conditions at the right time.
In Valpolicella tension is perceivable in the air. There are tracks running back and forth from cellars and vineyards, transporting wooden or plastic crates that are washed and laid neatly along the vine lines. Fermentation vets are being emptied, bottling or putting in barrels the last few liters of Valpolicella or Amarone.
The harvest of white grapes have already started in some areas such as Soave or Custoza, and even in Valpolicella there are few vineyards where they are already picking the first bunches even if the harvest will be at his peak in Valpolicella only in two weeks.
Of course, the process of makingAmarone is long and complicate and everything has to be perfeclty done in order to have the best wine, but having excellent grapes is the first and most important step in the production of a memorable wine. So, do not forget 2011 and in a 2 or 3 years, when the first bottles of Amarone will be ready, we will be talking again of this vintage.
In the mean time don’t miss the chance to experience harvest time, visiting drying lofts where the bunches for the production of Amarone and Recioto are laid to dry, joining one of our wine and winery tours in Valpolicella.
Winter has arrived in Valpolicella too and this year is particularly cold. At the beginning of December temperatures reached -10 C (14 F), unusually cold for the area.
Mount Baldo is completely covered with snow. With its 2219 meters is the highest mountain in Verona district. It represent the west border of Valpolicella. Behind mt. Baldo there’s lake Garda and Bardolino wine producing area.
No leaves are left on the vines in Valpolicella vineyards. December is one of the quiest month for farmers and wine makers. Soon winter pruning will start. It is very important activity because through pruning, vine growers can decide how many bunches the vine will produce.
During harvest, grapes for the production of the Amarone are selected first. The second selection is for the Valpolicella Superiore. The last picking is for the grapes that will become Valpolicella Classico. Grapes that are not considered good enough to become Valpolicella wines are left on the vines. They’ll become an important source of food for wild birds.
Marogna is the stone wall you find on the terraced vineyards. It helps to sustain the soil on the slopes of Valpolicella hill. It looks bare with the leafless vines.
Mould devolops on Corvina bunches left on Valpolicella vines in Winter.
At the beginning of each line of vines you often find a rose bush. It is a very delicate plant and it usually gets pests and desease before the vine so that farmers can anticipate treatments. The last flowers were cought by the morning frost.